Nickel-Cadmium (NI-CD) Batteries

Executive Summary

In commercial production since the 1910s, nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) is a traditional battery1. Two or more electricAn adjective meaning “needing electricity to operate” such as electric motor or wire. IEEE: Containing, producing , arising from, actuated by or carrying electricity. cells connected together electrically. In common usage, the term “battery” is also applied to a single cell, such as a household battery. 2. A system comprised of identical electrochemical cells. type that has seen periodic advances in electrodeAn electrical conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves a conducting medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum. For electrolytic solutions, many solids, and molten masses, an electrode is an... technology and packaging in order to remain viable. While not exceling in typical measures such as energy1. Energy is the potential of a physical system to perform work. (A common unit of work is foot-pound—the amount of energy needed to lift one pound up a distance of one foot.) Energy exists in several forms such as electromagnetic radiation ... density or first cost, Ni-Cd batteries remain relevant by providing simple implementation without complex management systems, while providing long life and reliable service.

Discussion

Early Ni-Cd cells used pocket-plate technology, a design that is still in production today. Sintered plates entered production in the mid-20th century, to be followed later by fiber plates, plastic-bonded electrodes and foam plates. Cells with pocket and fiber plates generally use the same electrode design for both the nickel positive and cadmium negative, while sintered and foam positives are now more commonly used with plastic-bonded negatives. 

All industrial Ni-Cd designs are vented types, allowing gases formed on overcharge to be dissipated but requiring some degree of water replenshment to compensate. This has led to the implementation of separator designs that allow varying levels of recombinationState in which the gases normally formed within the battery cell during its operation, are recombined to form water., with some products designed for telecom or off-grid renewable energy applications achieving near maintenance-free operation with respect to the electrolyteFor electrochemical batteries; A chemical compound which, when fused or dissolved in certain solvents, usually water, will conduct an electric current. All electrolytes in the fused state or in solution give rise to ions which conduct the electric...

Ni-Cd batteries found use in some earlier energy-storage applications, most notably the Golden Valley Electric Association BESS, sized for 27 megawatts for 15 minutes and commissioned in 2003. Ni-Cd has also been used for stabilizing wind-energy systems, with a 3 megawattA unit of powerThe rate at which energy is generated, converted, transmitted, distributed or delivered. equal to one million watts. system on the island of Bonaire commissioned in 2010 as part of a project for the island to become the first community with 100% of its power derived from sustainable sources.